Wamba research site

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Central Africa > Democratic Republic Congo > Wamba research site

Contents

Summary

Species Trend Data Quality
P.pan.
P.pan.
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown

Site

Wamba and Lomako (Lomako Yokokala Faunal Reserve and Lomako Forest) in the northern sector of the bonobos range have been research stations for several decades. Although research efforts in other regions of the Congo Basin are being expanded, they are the main source of information on this species.[1]

The Wamba Research Site in the Congo Basin was established in 1974 by Takayoshi Kano after he had confirmed direct evidence of bonobos during his study in 1973.[2] It is located at 22.30 E, 0.10 N in the Equateur province in DRC in the northern sector of the bonobos range. The study site covers an area of 100 km2 surrounding the five hamlets of Wamba village. The Wamba Research Site is part of the Upper Luo River Region (6000 km2). It is included within a 10 km wide strip extending 90 km from Befori to Yakili on the north side of Luo River.[3] Wamba is situated in the same forest block as Lomako, the two sites are separated by about 150 km.[1]


The vegetation is composed of mixed semi-deciduous and evergreen forest (44.30%), old secondary forest (15.60%), swamp forest (21.90%) and recently disturbed forest and cultivated land (13.6%).[4]

There is an average annual rainfall of 2005 mm. The rainfall is heaviest from September to November (> 200 mm/month) and least from December to February (< 100 mm/month). There is no month without rainfall.[5]

The absolute maximum of temperature ranges from 32.6 - 36°C, the absolute minimum from 12.7 – 17.1°C between 1953 and 1963.[5]


Ape status

Five bonobo communities range fully or partly in the study site: the E-group, which is studied most, the B-group, P-group, K-group and the S-group. The communities are studied at an artificial feeding site, under mobile provisioning and in their natural habitat.[3] Due to the vicinity to five villages (connected by roads and surrounded by cultivated land) and the longtime presence of researchers the bonobo study population of Wamba has been strongly influenced by human presence.[3]

Year of publication Estimated no. of individuals Sources Dates
2009
2008
2007
1992 400
(primarily based on extrapolations from habitat type)[3]
Bonobo Protection Fund (Japan), Kyoto University/CRSN[6] ?
1987 345 Kano 1987[7] ?

Table 1: Bonobo population estimates in Wamba

Threats

Poaching

Hunting pressure by locals is not given as the Ngandu people, the habitants of the Wamba region have religious proscriptions against the killing of bonobos. But since 1984 hunters from other regions began killing monkeys and great apes in the Wamba region.[7][8][9][10][11]

Habitat loss

The Aciton Plan for Pan paniscus (1995) reports, that from 1974-1990 the habitat of the bonobos was reduced at least by half.[12]


Major Threats Wamba
Poaching yes (subsistence hunting)[1]
Disease
Agriculture yes (coffee plantations, agriculture fields)[1]
Logging
Mining

Table 2: Threats to bonobos in Wamba


Conservation activities

The Wamba Research Site was established in 1974 by Takayoshi Kano after he had confirmed direct evidence of bonobos during his study in 1973.[2] Due to the Civil War research was interrupted from 1996-2002. Since 2002, researchers of the Wamba Committee for Bonobo Research, supported by the National Geographic Society, and members of the Centre de recherche en écologie et foresterie of Mabali (CREF) are continuing field research.[1]

Behavioral long-term field research is conducted in Wamba providing rich data for an ethogram on local bonobos. These data can be used to analyse behavioral variation between different sites, e.g. Wamba and Lomako which are located in the same forest block, or even between different species.[1]


Conservation actions Wamba
Law Enforcement
Long-term Research yes
Permanent Monitoring Program
Education
Public Awareness Campaign
Ecotourism

Table 3: Conservation activities in Wamba


Surveys

please add information


Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Thompson, J., Hohmann, G., Furuichi, T. (Eds.) (2003). Bonobo workshop: Behaviour, ecology and conservation of wild bonobos. Inuyama, Japan.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Kano, T. (1984). Distribution of pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) in the Central Zaire Basin. Folia primatol. 43: 36-52.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Thompson-Handler, N., Malenky, R.K., and Reinartz, G.E. (Eds.) ACTION PLAN FOR Pan paniscus: REPORT ON FREE-RANGING POPULATIONS AND PROPOSALS FOR THEIR PRESERVATION, Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Zoological Society of Milwaukee County.
  4. White, F.J. (1992). Activity budgets, feeding behavior and habitat use of pygmy chimpanzees at Lomako, Zaire. Am. J. Primatol. 26: 215-223.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Vuanza and Crabbe 1975, in: Kano, T and Muavwa, M. (1984). Feeding ecology of the pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) of Wamba. In RL Susman (ed.), The Pygmy Chimpanzee: Evolutionary Biology and Behavior. Plenum, New York.
  6. Bonobo/Pygmy Chimpanzee Protection Fund (Japan) (1992). A Plan for the Protection of Bonobos (Pygmy Chimpanzees) of the Upper Luo Region, cited in: Action Plan for Pan paniscus (1995).
  7. 7.0 7.1 Kano, T. (1987). A population study of a unit group of pygmy chimpanzees of Wamba – with a special reference to the possible lack of intraspecific killing. In Y Ito, JL Brown and J Kikkawa (eds.), Animal Societies: Theories and Fact. Japan Sci. Soc. Press, Tokyo.
  8. Kano, T., Kuroda, S., Nishida, T. and Furuichi, T. (1990). Letter to Douglas G. Myers, cited in: Action Plan for Pan paniscus (1995).
  9. Linden, E. (1992). Chimpanzees with a difference: bonobos. National Geographic 181(3): 46-53.
  10. Idani, G. (1991). A report on recent conditions in Luo Reserve and Kinshasa. Bonobo News I (December).
  11. Okayasu (1991). Field topic from Luo Reserve. Bonobo News I (December 1991).
  12. Kuroda et al. in press, in Bonobo/Pygmy chimpanzee protection fund 1992, cited in Action Plan for Pan paniscus (1995).

References

  • Bonobo/Pygmy Chimpanzee Protection Fund (Japan) (1992). A Plan for the Protection of Bonobos (Pygmy Chimpanzees) of the Upper Luo Region, cited in: Action Plan for Pan paniscus (1995).
  • Idani, G. (1991). A report on recent conditions in Luo Reserve and Kinshasa. Bonobo News I (December).
  • Kano, T (1984). Distribution of pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) in the Central Zaire Basin. Folia primatol. 43: 36-52.
  • Kano, T (1987). A population study of a unit group of pygmy chimpanzees of Wamba – with a special reference to the possible lack of intraspecific killing. In Y Ito, JL Brown and J Kikkawa (eds.), Animal Societies: Theories and Fact. Japan Sci. Soc. Press, Tokyo.
  • Kano, T., Kuroda, S., Nishida, T. and Furuichi, T. (1990). Letter to Douglas G. Myers.
  • Kano, T and Muavwa, M (1984). Feeding ecology of the pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) of Wamba. In RL Susman (ed.), The Pygmy Chimpanzee: Evolutionary Biology and Behavior. Plenum, New York.
  • Kuroda et al. in press, in Bonobo/Pygmy chimpanzee protection fund 1992, cited in Action Plan for Pan paniscus (1995).
  • Linden, E. (1992). Chimpanzees with a difference: bonobos. National Geographic 181(3): 46-53.
  • Okayasu (1991). Field topic from Luo Reserve. Bonobo News I (December 1991).
  • Thompson-Handler, N., Malenky, R.K., and Reinartz, G.E. (Eds.)(1995). ACTION PLAN FOR Pan paniscus: REPORT ON FREE-RANGING POPULATIONS AND PROPOSALS FOR THEIR PRESERVATION, Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Zoological Society of Milwaukee County.
  • Thompson, J., Hohmann, G., Furuichi, T. (Eds.) (2003). Bonobo workshop: Behaviour, ecology and conservation of wild bonobos. Inuyama, Japan.
  • White, FJ (1992). Activity budgets, feeding behavior and habitat use of pygmy chimpanzees at Lomako, Zaire. Am. J. Primatol. 26: 215-223.
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