Taï National Park

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West Africa > Ivory Coast > Taï National Park

SITE UNDER PROGRESS

Contents

Summary

  • Western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) are present in.
  • The last population estimate was 406 individuals (265-623).
  • The chimpanzee population trend is stable.
  • This site has a total size of 5360 km².
  • Key threats to chimpanzees are poaching and diseases.
  • The following conservation activities were conducted by OIPR, Taï Chimpanzee Project, Taï Monkey Project and Wild Chimpanzee Foundation: anti-poaching patrols, long-term Research, education, public Awareness , Ecotourism.


Site characteristics

Taï National Park
Taï National Park

Taï National Park (IUCN category: II ) was created in 1972 and proclaimed a UNESCO world heritage site in 1982 (Criteria iii, iv, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/195). The park is located in south-western Côte d'Ivoire (5°15'-6°07'N, 7°25'-7°54'W), approximately 200 km south of Man and 100 km from the coast. With a size of 5360 km², it is the largest protected forest block and one of the last tropical lowland forests in the Upper Guinea Region, sheltering rich biodiversity with threatened and endemic species such as pygmy hippo, white-breasted guinea fowl or Jentink's duiker. It is managed by the Office Ivoirien des Parcs et Réserves (OIPR).


Table 1: Basic site information for Taï National Park

Area: 5360 km²
Designation: National Park
Habitat types: Sub-tropical/Tropical Moist Lowland

[IUCN habitat categories] [IUCN Protected area categories]


Ape status

Annual surveys since 2005 estimated chimpanzee population size (Pan troglodytes verus http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/15935) at 300-800 weaned individuals. This is much lower than a previous estimate of several thousand individuals (Marchesi et al., 1995). However, the Marchesi study was essential for estimating rate of population change for the Taï region (Campbell et al. 2008), which showed that there was no significant decline between 1990 and 2008. Since then, abundance and density are estimated with production and decay rates estimated by Kouakou et al. (2009).


Table 2: Great ape population estimates in Taï National Park

Species Year Abundance estimate (95% Confidence Intervall) Density estimate (per km2) Encounter rate Area Method Source Comments A.P.E.S. database ID
Western chimpanzee 2016 406 (265-623) 0.07 (0.05-0.11) 0.265 entire Transect survey Tiedoue et al. 2016
Western chimpanzee 2015 540 (321-909) 0.099 (0.060-0.169) 0.57 entire Transect survey Tiedoue et al. 2015
Western chimpanzee 2014 238 (116-487) 0.044 (0.022-0.091) 0.67 entire Transect survey Tiedoue et al. 2014
Western chimpanzee 2013 294 (173-500) 0.055 (0.032-0.093) 0.49 entire Transect survey Tiedoue et al. 2013
Western chimpanzee 2012 264(135-518) 0.0493 (0.0252-0.0966) 0.39 entire Transect survey Yapi et al. 2012
Western chimpanzee 2011 497 (287-868) 0.09 (0.05-0.16) 0.58 entire Transect survey N'Goran et al. 2011
Western chimpanzee 2010 441 (264-735) 0.08 (0.05-0.14) 0.89 entire Transect survey N'Goran et al. 2010
Western chimpanzee 2009 361 (230-568) 0.077 (0.040-0.147) 1.22 entire Transect survey N'Goran et al. 2009
Western chimpanzee 2008 516 (314-847) 0.10 (0.06-0.16) 0.91 entire Transect survey N'Goran et al. 2008
Western chimpanzee 2007 479 (299-767) 0.09 (0.06-0.14) 0.54 entire Transect survey N'Goran et al. 2007
Western chimpanzee 2006 480 (280-830) 0.089 (0.052-0.155) 0.54 entire Transect survey N'Goran et al. 2006


Threats

Illegal poaching represents the major threat to the chimpanzee population in the park. Habitat destruction by agriculture, illegal logging and gold mining in some areas of the park also threaten the long-term existence of chimpanzees in this area. Furthermore, long-term research by the Tai Chimpanzee Project established that a considerable number of individuals were killed by the Ebola virus (Formenti et al., 1999), Anthrax (Leendertz et al. 2004) and respiratory diseases (Köndgen et al., 2008) of human origin.

Table 3: Threats to great apes in Taï National Park

Category Specific threats Threat level Description Year of threat
1. Residential & commercial development absent
2. Agriculture & aquaculture subsistence agriculture low cocoa and rice field in the eastern side of the park 2016
3. Energy production & mining artisanal mining low 3 abandoned and 1 active mining sites 2016
4. Transportation & service corridors absent
5. Biological resource use poaching high 29 gunshots heard, 38 snares and 81 cartridges found 2016
6. Human intrusion & disturbance Ebola, anthrax High Presence of Ebola, anthrax, and respiratory diseases of human origins 2016
7. Natural system modifications absent
8. Invasive & other problematic species, genes, diseases Ebola, anthrax High Presence of Ebola, anthrax, and respiratory diseases of human origins 2016
9. Pollution low objects found 2016
10. Geological Events absent
11. Climate change & severe weather absent
12. Other options absent

Threats list


Conservation activities

In the 1970's the first research station was built in Taï National Park and since then several research projects have been conducted on different species. In particular, long-term studies by the Taï Chimpanzee Project (TCP) established in 1979 and the Taï Monkey Project (TMP) established in 1989 ensured and continue to ensure the presence of researchers at the research sites, which appears to have had a positive influence on local chimpanzee densities. Office Ivoirien des Parcs et reserves does an annual bio-monitoring survey over the entire park and, in addition, Wild Chimpanzee Foundation also does an annual bio-monitoring survey over the research area in collaboration with the TCP. Eco-guards from Eaux et Forets do regulars patrols across the entire park to control illegal activities. Survey public awareness campaigns, such as conservation education programs at local schools have mediated the need to conserve chimpanzees and their natural habitat through interactive theaters, discussion rounds and films. Two Eco-tourism projects have also been developed in the Taï and Djouroutou area.

(http://www.wildchimps.org/wcf/english/pan/index.html)

Table 4: Conservation activities in Taï National Park

Category Specific activity Description Year of activity
1. Residential & commercial development absent
2. Agriculture & aquaculture absent Law enforcement 2016
3. Energy production & mining absent Law enforcement 2016
4. Transportation & service corridors absent
5. Biological resource use Conduct regular anti-poaching patrols; use monitoring data to improve effectiveness of wildlife law enforcement patrols Permanent Monitoring Program and regular anti-poaching patrols done regularly throughout the year. 2016
6. Human intrusion & disturbance absent
7. Natural system modifications absent
8. Invasive & other problematic species, genes, diseases Detect & report dead primates and clinically determine their cause of death to avoid disease transmission; Regularly disinfect clothes, boots etc.; Implement quarantine for people arriving at the site; Wear face-masks to avoid transmission of viral and bacterial diseases to primates; Keep safety distance to habituated animals
9. Pollution absent
10. Education & Awareness Educate local communities about primates and sustainable use; Involve local community in primate research and conservation management; Implement multimedia campaigns using theatre, film, print media, discussions local communities are hired by NGOs and long-term research field sites. Theater, and education program are implemented by WCF 2016
11. Habitat Protection absent
12. Species Management absent
13. Livelihood; Economic & Other Incentives Run research project and ensure permanent human presence at site; Run tourist projects and ensure permanent human presence at site; Permanent presence of staff/manager 3 long-term research project: Tai Chimpanzee Project, Tai Monkey project and Tai Hippo Project and 2 ecotourism sites at Tai and Djouroutou 2016

Conservation activities list


Research activities

The first multi-species biomonitoring program was initiated in 1999 (Radl, 2004). Here, line transects were placed in five different zones in the periphery of the park. Each transect was sampled once a month for a duration of one week where all transects were sampled four times. In 2005, the Wild Chimpanzee Foundation (WCF) implemented a new improved biomonitoring program. This program (which is ongoing) has improved sampling intensity and coverage with transects now being distributed randomly across the entire park. An important survey to determine local nest production and decay rate has been done in 2009 and a project started in 2016 as for aim to improve biomonitoring by using camera traps. (http://www.wildchimps.org/wcf/english/files/biomonitoring.htm) Since 30 years, three communities of chimpanzees are fully habituated to humans and a fourth one is under habituation ("North-East" community). Two other projects that occur in the Taï area are the Taï Monkey project and the Taï hippo project.




References

  • Campbell, G., Kuehl, H., N´Goran, K.P. and Boesch, C.(2008). Alarming decline of West African chimpanzees in Côte d´Ivoire. Current Biology, 18(19).
  • Formenty, P., Boesch, C., Wyers, M., Steiner, C., Donati, F., Dind, F., Walker, F., Le Guenno, B. (1999). Ebola virus outbreak among wild chimpanzees in a rainforest of Côte d'Ivoire. J.Infect.Dis., 179(1): 120-126.
  • Köndgen, S., Kuehl, H., N´Goran, K.P., Walsh, P., Schenk, S., Ernst, N., Biek, R., Formenty, P., Mätz-Rensing, K., Schweiger, B., Junglen, S., Ellerbrok, H., Nitsche, A., Briese, T., Lipkin, W.I., Pauli, G., Boesch, C., Leendertz, F.H. (2008). Pandemic Human Viruses Causes Decline of Endangered Great Apes. Current Biology 18, 260-264.
  • Hoppe-Dominik, B. (1991) Distribution and status of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) on the Ivory Coast. Primate Report, 31, 45-75.
  • Klee, S.R., Oetzel, M., Appel, B., Boesch, C., Ellerbrock, H., Jacob, D., Holland, G., Leendertz, F.H., Pauli, G., Grunow, R., Nattermann, H. (2006). Characterization of Bacillus anthracis-like Bacteria Isolated from Wild Great Apes from Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon. Journal of Bacteriology, 188 (15): 5333-5344.
  • Leendertz, F.H., Ellerbrok, H., Boesch, C., Couacy-Hymann, E., Mätz-Rensing, K., Hakenbeck, R., Bergmann, C., Abaza, P., Junglen, S., Moebius, Y., Vigilant, L., Formenty, P., Pauli, G. (2004). Anthrax kills wild chimpanzees in a tropical rain forest, Nature, 430.
  • Marchesi, P., Marchesi,N., Fruth, B. and Boesch, C. (1995). Census and Distribution in Côte D´Ivoire. Primates, 36(4): 591-607.
  • N’Goran, K.P., Herbinger, I., Boesch, C., Tondossama, A. (2007). Quelques résultats de la première phase du biomonitoring au Parc National de Taï (août 2005 – mars 2006). Unpubl. Rapport WCF/OIPR.
  • N’Goran, K.P., Yapi, F. Herbinger, I., Boesch, C., Tondossama, A. (2007). /Etat du Parc National de Taï /: Rapport de résultats de biomonitoring, phase II (septembre 2006 – avril 2007). Unpubl. Rapport WCF/OIPR.
  • N’Goran, K.P., Yapi, F. Herbinger, I., Boesch, C., Tondossama, A. (2008). /Etat du Parc National de Taï./ Rapport de resultats de biomonitoring. Phase III, Août 2007 - Mars 2008. Unpubl. Report WCF/OIPR.
  • N’Goran, K. P., Yapi, A. F., Herbinger, I., Tondossama, A. et Boesch, C. (2009). Etat du Parc National de Taï : Rapport de résultats de biomonitoring phase IV (août 2008 – février 2009). Unpubl. Rapport WCF/OIPR, Abidjan.
  • N’Goran K. P., Yapi A. F., Herbinger I., Tondossama A. et Boesch C. 2009 - Etat du Parc National de Taï : Rapport de résultats de biomonitoring phase V (septembre 2009 – mars 2010). Unpubl. Rapport WCF/OIPR, Abidjan.
  • N’Goran K. P., Yapi A. F., Normand E., Herbinger I., Diarrassouba A., Tondossama A. et Boesch C. 2011 - Etat du Parc National de Taï : Rapport de résultats de biomonitoring phase VI (octobre 2010 – mars 2011). Unpubl.Rapport WCF/OIPR, Abidjan.
  • Yapi A. F., Vergnes V., Normand E., N’Goran K. P., Diarrassouba A., Tondossama A. et Boesch C. 2012 - Etat de conservation du Parc National de Taï: Rapport de résultats de biomonitoring phase 7 (janvier 2012- juillet 2012). Unpubl. Rapport WCF/OIPR, Abidjan.
  • Tiédoué R., Vergnes V., Kouakou Y. C., Normand E., Ouattara M., Diarrassouba A., Tondossama A. et Boesch C. 2013 - Etat de conservation du Parc National de Taï: Rapport de résultats de suivi-écologique -

phase 8 (janvier 2013 - juin 2013). Unpubl. Rapport OIPR/WCF, Abidjan.

  • Tiédoué R., Kouakou Y. C., Normand E., Vergnes V., Ouattara M., Diarrassouba A., Tondossama A. et Boesch C. 2014 - Etat de conservation du Parc National de Taï: Rapport de résultats de suivi-écologique -

phase 9 (octobre 2013 - avril 2014). Unpubl. Rapport OIPR/WCF, Abidjan.

  • Tiédoué R., Normand E., Diarrassouba A., Tondossama A. et Boesch C. 2015 - Etat de conservation du Parc National de Taï: Rapport de résultats de suivi-écologique - phase 10 (novembre 2014 - mai 2015). Unpubl. Rapport OIPR/WCF, Abidjan.
  • TIEDOUE R., Diarrassouba A. et Tondossama A. 2016 – Etat de conservation du Parc national de Taï: Résultats du suivi écologique, Phase 11. Office Ivoirien des Parcs et Réserves/Direction de Zone Sud-ouest. Soubré, Unpubl. Côte d’Ivoire. 31p.
  • Radl, G. 2004. Le système de surveillance et le développement des densités des animaux braconnés du Parc National de Taï. Deutschen Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, Eschborn, PN: 02.2279.4-001.00.
  • UICN/BRAO (2008). Evaluation de léfficacité de la gestion des aires protégées: parcs et réserves de Côte d´Ivoire.
  • WCF/OIPR-PNT/WWF/CSRS/KFW/EU/UNEP/GRASP/GTZ (Juillet 2008). Etat du Parc National de Tai. Rapport de Resultats de Biomonitoring Phase III (Août 2007-Mars 2008)
  • Yao, C. Y. Adou and Roussel, Bernard (2007). Forest Management, Farmers' Practices and Biodiversity Conservation in the Monogaga Protected Coastal Forest in Southwest Côte D'Ivoire. Africa, 77(1):63-85.


Page completed by: A.P.E.S. Wiki team Date: 04/12/18

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